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Anthony Roberts
Anthony Roberts

Tik Tok Beauty: How to Achieve Flawless Makeup and Hair

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Tok Pisin (English: /tɒk ˈpɪsɪn/,[3][4] /tɔːk, -zɪn/;[5] Tok Pisin [ˌtok piˈsin][1]), often referred to by English speakers as New Guinea Pidgin or simply Pidgin, is a creole language spoken throughout Papua New Guinea. It is an official language of Papua New Guinea and the most widely used language in the country. However, in parts of the southern provinces of Western, Gulf, Central, Oro, and Milne Bay, the use of Tok Pisin has a shorter history and is less universal, especially among older people.

Between five and six million people use Tok Pisin to some degree, although not all speak it fluently. Many now learn it as a first language, in particular the children of parents or grandparents who originally spoke different languages (for example, a mother from Madang and a father from Rabaul). Urban families in particular, and those of police and defence force members, often communicate among themselves in Tok Pisin, either never gaining fluency in a local language (tok ples) or learning a local language as a second (or third) language, after Tok Pisin (and possibly English). Over the decades, Tok Pisin has increasingly overtaken Hiri Motu as the dominant lingua franca among town-dwellers.[6] Perhaps one million people now use Tok Pisin as a primary language. Tok Pisin is slowly "crowding out" other languages of Papua New Guinea.[7][6]

Tok is derived from English "talk", but has a wider application, also meaning "word", "speech", or "language". Pisin derives from the English word 'pidgin'; the latter, in turn, may originate in the word business, which is descriptive of the typical development and use of pidgins as inter-ethnic trade languages.

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While Tok Pisin's name in the language is Tok Pisin, it is also called "New Guinea Pidgin"[8] in English. Papua New Guinean anglophones often refer to Tok Pisin as "Pidgin" when speaking English.[9] This usage of "Pidgin" differs from the term "pidgin" as used in linguistics. Tok Pisin is not a pidgin in the latter sense, since it has become a first language for many people (rather than simply a lingua franca to facilitate communication with speakers of other languages). As such, it is considered a creole in linguistic terminology.[10]

The Tok Pisin language is a result of Pacific Islanders intermixing, when people speaking numerous different languages were sent to work on plantations in Queensland and various islands (see South Sea Islander and blackbirding). The labourers began to develop a pidgin, drawing vocabulary primarily from English, but also from German, Malay, Portuguese and their own Austronesian languages (perhaps especially Kuanua, that of the Tolai people of East New Britain).

This English-based pidgin evolved into Tok Pisin in German New Guinea (where the German-based creole Unserdeutsch was also spoken). It became a widely used lingua franca and language of interaction between rulers and ruled, and among the ruled themselves who did not share a common vernacular. Tok Pisin and the closely related Bislama in Vanuatu and Pijin in the Solomon Islands, which developed in parallel, have traditionally been treated as varieties of a single Melanesian Pidgin English or "Neo-Melanesian" language. The flourishing of the mainly English-based Tok Pisin in German New Guinea (despite the language of the metropolitan power being German) is to be contrasted with Hiri Motu, the lingua franca of Papua, which was derived not from English but from Motu, the vernacular of the indigenous people of the Port Moresby area.

Along with English and Hiri Motu, Tok Pisin is one of the three official languages of Papua New Guinea. It is frequently the language of debate in the national parliament. Most government documents are produced in English, but public information campaigns are often partially or entirely in Tok Pisin. While English is the main language in the education system, some schools use Tok Pisin in the first three years of elementary education to promote early literacy.

There are considerable variations in vocabulary and grammar in various parts of Papua New Guinea, with distinct dialects in the New Guinea Highlands, the north coast of Papua New Guinea, and islands outside of New Guinea. For example, Pidgin speakers from Finschhafen speak rather quickly and often have difficulty making themselves understood elsewhere. The variant spoken on Bougainville and Buka is moderately distinct from that of New Ireland and East New Britain but is much closer to that than it is to the Pijin spoken in the rest of the Solomon Islands.

There are 4 sociolects of Tok Pisin: Tok Bus (meaning "talk of the remote areas") or Tok Kanaka (meaning "talk of the people of the remote areas"), Tok Bilong Asples (meaning "language of the villages") which is the traditional rural Tok Pisin, Tok Skul (meaning "talk of the schools") or Tok Bilong Taun (meaning "talk of the Towns") which is the urban Tok Pisin, and Tok Masta (meaning "language of the colonizers", unsystematically simplified English with some Tok Pisin words[11]).[6]

Tok Pisin, like many pidgins and creoles, has a simpler phonology than the superstrate language. It has 17 consonants and 5 vowels.[1] However, this varies with the local substrate languages and the level of education of the speaker. The following is the "core" phonemic inventory, common to virtually all varieties of Tok Pisin. More educated speakers, and/or those where the substrate language(s) have larger phoneme inventories, may have as many as 10 distinct vowels.

Nasal plus plosive offsets lose the plosive element in Tok Pisin e.g. English hand becomes Tok Pisin han. Furthermore, voiced plosives become voiceless at the ends of words, so that English pig is rendered as pik in Tok Pisin.

Reduplication is very common in Tok Pisin. Sometimes it is used as a method of derivation; sometimes words just have it. Some words are distinguished only by reduplication: sip "ship", sipsip "sheep".

Sentences which have a 3rd person subject often put the word i immediately before the verb. This may or may not be written separate from the verb, occasionally written as a prefix. Although the word is thought to be derived from "he" or "is", it is not itself a pronoun or a verb but a grammatical marker used in particular constructions, e.g., Kar i tambu long hia is "car forbidden here", i.e., "no parking".

Tok Pisin is a language that developed out of regional dialects of the languages of the local inhabitants and English, brought into the country when English speakers arrived. There were four phases in the development of Tok Pisin that were laid out by Loreto Todd.

Many words in the Tok Pisin language are derived from English (with Australian influences), indigenous Melanesian languages, and German (part of the country was under German rule until 1919). Some examples:

Note #1: I marinated and grilled a total of about 500 grams (1/2 kg.) of beef, which was two decent sized steaks. BUT for actually making a plate of nam tok neua, I only used 1/2 of the beef, about 250 grams. This is mostly because I think it tastes better if you make a smaller batch at a time and eat it fresh. Feel free to modify this recipe as needed.

I made a mistake and began resting my steaks on my chopping board and I unfortunately lost a little of the juice that came out of it. So it would be best to rest your meat on a plate so you can collect all the juices to add to the salad.

Just like in Thai laab salad (ลาบ) and a number of other Isaan dishes, khao khua (ข้าวคั่ว), toasted sticky rice powder, is extremely important in this Thai waterfall salad recipe.

The khao khua (ข้าวคั่ว) gives the dressing and the meat a wonderful fragrant smoky flavor, as well as a fresh crunch, almost like un-popped popcorn kernels, only smaller bits, and much easier to chew.

You can add as much as you like, but nam tok should be a little bit spicy to give it a nice balanced flavor. I like to use whole Thai dried chilies, quickly dry roast them in a hot pan for a few seconds so they crisp up and then blend them. That way you have the best tasting and fragrant dry chili flakes.

This was so good and so easy to make! I left out the sticky rice, not a fan! I grew up in Thailand and have never attempted to make this. I used top sirloin and it worked very well. I will certainly make this dish a lot. Thank you for the recipe!

Great recipe. Been making this dish in the US for over two years now. If you dont have shallots, red onion works great. We also put the meat on a bed of either cabbage or romaine lettuce. We like to combine the crushed red pepper flakes with the lime and fish sauce for 20 mins to let the flavors macerate, then combine with beef, chicken, pork, shrimp, (really any protien works), red onion and ground toasted rice. *side note on making the toasted rice, put rice on dry sheet pan, 350F in oven, 10-15 mins. turn or shake halfway, much easier.

I order Nam Tok from Thai Restaurant often. I made this recipe and it was fantastic! I add 3 times the fish sauce and lime juice because I like it with more sauce. I love, love, loved it! Thank yo so much!


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